Helvecio Della Coletta-Filho; Andreina I. Castillo; Francisco Ferraz Laranjeira; Eduardo Chumbinho de Andrade; Natalia Teixeira Silva; Alessandra Alves de Souza; Mariana Esteves Bossi; Rodrigo P. P. Almeida & João R. S. Lopes.
16 April 2020
The emergence of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) disease had dramatic consequences to the citrus industry in Brazil. First
reported in São Paulo State in 1987, this disease affected approximately 100 million sweet orange trees in the region 20 years later. However, current estimates indicate that the number of diseased trees has been reduced 25-fold since 2009.
In this reviewwe summarize research on CVC since its emergence, focusing on work that has contributed to the observed success in managing this disease in the field. Knowledge that CVC is caused by a bacterium (Xylella fastidiosa – now classified as X. fastidiosa subsp.
pauca) that is transmited by infected plant material (grafting and nursery plant) and insect vectors, the citrus nursery production
system switched in 2003 to a certification program in which plants are grown in insect proof screen-houses and routinely
monitored for X. fastidiosa infection. Research triggered by the genome sequencing of a CVC isolate in 2000, the first plant
pathogenic bacterium to have its complete genome sequenced, integrated molecular tools and approaches into research aimed at
understanding the biology of this pathogen. Ultimately, the challenges imposed by CVC led to significant improvements in the
scientific and technical knowledge linked to sweet orange production, and to the development of a more sustainable and resilient
citrus industry in Brazil.